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Sheep breeders value edelbay sheep for lack of capriciousness in care, endurance, meat, greasy and milk productivity. The Edilbaevskaya breed of sheep was bred specifically for the arid and scarce vegetation of the steppe regions. Unpretentious fat-tailed animals are adapted to multi-day transitions between pastures, frosty winters and dry summers, gaining weight on stunted pasture.
History of the breed
The Edilbaev breed was obtained by breeders in the 19th century, crossing a fat-tailed Kazakh sheep with an Astrakhan ram. In the process of selection, experts selected the strongest and most hardy offspring, characterized by high adaptability to both drought and severe frost, capable of traveling long distances without losing weight, feeding on stunted steppe grass.
Representatives of the Edelbay breed are distinguished by their fertility, they give not only meat, but also valuable fat tail fat. The breed was to the liking of the shepherds who roam the steppes and semi-deserts of Kazakhstan. The fat accumulating in the fat tail allows the sheep body not to lose meat and milk productivity in the unfavorable climate of the steppe zone.
For several decades, the Edilbaev breed was bred by Kazakh sheep breeders. By the 1950s, the unpretentious and productive breed became popular in other union republics. Today Edilbaev's sheep are raised by Kazakh, Uzbek, Ukrainian livestock breeders.
Appearance and characteristics
Edilbaevskie sheep belong to the fat-tailed type. In the sacral region, they accumulate fatty mass, forming a fat tail, which grows as the animal ages.
External signs and characteristic features of the Edilbaevskaya breed are given in the table.
|Height at the withers||80-85 cm|
|chest girth||up to 1 m|
|the weight||ram - 110-120 kg, sheep - 65-70 kg|
|color||black (traditional), brown (dark and light), red|
|torso||strong, knocked down, with smooth outlines and a developed skeleton, the spine is strong and flexible, the back of the body looks more massive than the front|
|head||medium-sized, narrowed, with an elongated muzzle and a humped nose, strong and thick teeth, adapted to eat coarse plant foods|
|limbs||strong, sinewy, slender, well-muscled|
|wool||dense, dense, has a heat-insulating property, the length of the hairs is 10-15 cm, half of the wool mass is down|
Lambs are actively gaining weight from the first day of life. A newborn male calf weighs, on average, 6 kg, a female - 5.2-5.5 kg. The average daily weight gain of a lamb up to 3 months of age is 200-250 g, and males develop more slowly than females.
A young individual of 4 months of age weighs up to 25 kg, and the weight of a fat tail reaches 3 kg. Edilbaev sheep, which have reached 5-7 months, are suitable for slaughter, weigh up to 40 kg, and half of the weight is slaughter, and 4 kg is fatty mass. The productivity of Edilbaev sheep depends on color. Black animals are more productive in terms of the amount of meat and wool.
Advantages and disadvantages of Edelbaev sheep
quick adaptation to any climate;
immunity to temperature fluctuations, frost and heat;
lack of capriciousness in nutrition;
active weight gain with a constant meager diet;
high meat, dairy, wool, greasy productivity.
low fertility (the Edilbaevskaya sheep does not give birth to more than one cub);
rough and uneven structure of wool (raw materials are not suitable for the production of soft and high quality wool products);
susceptibility to hoof diseases associated with dampness and tissue decay;
hornlessness (rams in the pasture are not able to protect themselves from the attack of animals, therefore, the presence of a shepherd and herding dogs is required).
Maintenance and care requirements
Despite the endurance and high adaptability, the Edelbaev sheep need good living conditions. The barn must be clean and the bedding must be dry. High air humidity is unacceptable, it negatively affects the immune system and livestock productivity. The temperature in the barn must not be allowed to drop below +8 ° C; in the winter months, the heating must be turned on in the room.
A sedentary lifestyle negatively affects the muscle mass and general well-being of the Edilbaev sheep. Therefore, the herd must be walked daily.
Shearing of Edilbaev's sheep is supposed to be done once every 10 months. But some sheep breeders do it more often - once every 6 months to prevent dermatological and parasitic diseases.
What to feed the animals
The basis of the sheep's diet is fresh pasture grass, which animals eat for at least 200 days throughout the year. Moreover, sheep are able to find grass even under the snow, if its layer is not high.
Edilbaev's sheep are used for roughage as a last resort: when a snowy winter does not allow to continue pasture maintenance, or when precipitation has fallen, the vegetation on the pasture has become damp.
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Agronomist with 12 years of experience. Our best summer cottage expert.
Sheep should not be allowed to feed on wet or marsh grass, they will experience serious digestive problems. Livestock can also catch a cold while in damp pasture.
The daily portion of feed for one individual is 2 kg of hay, 1 kg of grain concentrates. In winter, Edilbaevsk sheep are given bran, cake, silage, and root crops for an intensive set of muscle mass and replenishment of vitamin deficiencies. Of the mineral supplements, the best option is a salt stone, which you can buy at a pet store. Animals must have clean water in constant access.
Edilbaevskie sheep are distinguished by low fertility. A single lamb is born 1-2 times a year. It is very rare for a sheep to have two cubs. Females reach sexual maturity by 7 months of age. For the onset of pregnancy, the female has to be inseminated several times. Breeding males remain productive until 5 years of age. The strongest and healthiest individuals are chosen for mating, the corresponding mark is cling to their ear.
Edilbaevskaya sheep walks pregnant for 5 months. The generic process lasts about an hour. Edelbaevskie sheep give birth on their own, no human help is required.
The owner only needs to prepare the generic stall, clean it of dirt and manure, put a fresh bedding, cut the hair around the external genital organs of the giving birth female.
Possible complications during childbirth are the appearance of a baby in the amniotic fluid or getting stuck in the birth canal due to an incorrect position. In these cases, an urgent need to call a veterinarian. The owner cleans the nasal passages and mouth of the newborn lamb from mucus. There is no need to wash the baby: the mother will lick it herself. The female with the lamb is kept in a separate enclosure.
Diseases of the breed and possible problems
The immunity of the Edelbaev sheep is strong, but certain diseases are found:
- Tick-borne encephalitis. The carrier is a tick moving onto the skin of animals from pasture grass. A sick sheep has a fever; if untreated, the nervous system is affected.
- Smallpox is a fatal viral pathology.
- Listeriosis is a bacterial disease that affects the nervous system, reproductive organs, and mammary glands. If untreated, the sick animal falls into paralysis and dies.
- Melophagosis is a parasitic disease that affects the skin. The parasite is a wingless fly called a sheep's bloodsucker. The insect lays eggs in the sheep's wool. The infected animal suffers from unbearable itching and is losing weight.
- White muscle disease occurs in lambs with hypovitaminosis. In a sick animal, coordination of movements is disturbed, convulsions occur, and muscle tone decreases.
- Helminthiasis is a lesion of the intestines with worms. Sheep swallow the larvae with pasture grass. If left untreated, there is a high likelihood of fatal hemorrhage in the digestive tract.
- Infectious mastitis in females is accompanied by the appearance of purulent ulcers on the mammary glands. In a neglected case, the animal dies.
- Flatulence - swelling of the scar section of the stomach.
- Bezoar disease of young animals - a perversion of appetite due to violations of the rules of feeding. The lamb plucks and swallows its wool, eats earth, sawdust, rags. As a result, undigested lumps accumulate in the abomasum, which interfere with the movement of food.
Farmers receive wool, meat, fat and milk from Edilbaev's sheep. The fat tail fat, saturated with vitamins and nutrients, is used for culinary purposes, for the creation of cosmetics. The weight of meat obtained after slaughter reaches 50-60% of the body weight of the animal. The fat tail weighs 4-5 kg, and the weight of the fat content is about 1 kg. One sheep provides a person with 4 kg of wool.
Lactation lasts 4 months. The amount of milk obtained from the Edilbaev sheep is small, but the product is fatty, suitable for the production of sour cream, cheese, cottage cheese. For dairy production to be profitable, the farm must have at least 15 milking individuals. The stiff wool of Edilbaev sheep is suitable for the production of carpets and winter wardrobe items. Inhabitants of the steppe regions of Kazakhstan use sheepskin for the production of comfortable and wearable clothes.
The most productive in terms of meat are rams of six months of age. It is unprofitable to grow the beef breed for longer, since the meat of the aging Edilbaev sheep is not in demand. Meat and lard products are exotic, popular only in the steppe regions, where local dishes are prepared from them. This should be taken into account when drawing up a business plan for a person who decides to breed the Edilbaev breed.
Estimated cost and where you can buy
The Edilbaevskaya breed is popular. Thoroughbred sheep are sold both by large breeding enterprises and by private owners engaged in sheep breeding. It is better to go to breeding farms, where the breed qualities are more carefully controlled, individuals with genetic pathologies are rejected.
The price of an edilbaevskaya sheep is determined by the status and reputation of the farm, the health and breed qualities of animals, and the region where livestock is raised. On average, a healthy thoroughbred lamb costs $ 200.
Edilbaevskaya is a productive breed of sheep that adapts to the most severe climatic conditions. The unpretentiousness of the Kazakh breed contributed to its rapid popularization. However, the quality of meat and lard products depends on the content and feeding, the regularity of pasture walking.