Muscat grape growing features: selection, description and varieties

Muscat grape growing features: selection, description and varieties

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There are quite a lot of nutmeg hybrid forms and grape varieties. Muscat grapes were known to the ancient Greeks and Romans. In the Middle Ages, muscat grape varieties were extremely popular in Italy and France.

Features of muscat grapes

In any muscat variety or hybrid form of grapes, the most vivid tones of muscat are manifested exclusively at the stage of physiological maturity of the fruit, due to the presence of ternoid compounds contained in the skin of the berry, as well as pulp under the skin.

Of great importance are the high quality and taste characteristics of the berries. Many people like the nutmeg taste, and the berries are quite sweet and have pronounced phytoncidal properties, due to which the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract improves.

Muscat grapes are a very old variety, it comes from Central Asia. Muscat was widely used all over the world, and on its basis many new, very interesting, high-quality varieties were obtained.

"Kuban Muscat": features of the variety

Description and photos of popular varieties

The popularity of nutmeg varieties has not declined for many decades, and the standard of such grapes is still considered "Muscat of Alexandria" and Hamburger Muscat which have an unrivaled taste. However, these varieties are very vulnerable to frost and have insufficient resistance to disease. It is for these reasons that many winegrowers abandoned their cultivation in favor of newer and more sustainable muscat.

Variety / hybridRipening periodBush descriptionBerry descriptionAppointmentSustainability
"Muscat summer"111-121 daysHigh. Brushes 0.61-0.71 kg or more, cylindrical, medium density.Oval, slightly elongated, 7-8.5 g, amber color, with nutmeg. The pulp is fleshy, extremely juicy. Sugar content - not more than 20%, acid - 8.0 g / l.Dining destinationWinter hardiness up to -23 ° С. Rarely affected by mildew, moderate degree of lesion by oidium.
"Muscat pink"140 daysBisexual flowering. Brush cylindrical or cylindrical, quite dense, weight - up to 214 gRounded, maroon, coated with pronounced spring. The skin is not thick. The pulp is juicy, sweet, with a pronounced muscat flavor.Dining destinationUnstable to mildew, significantly affected by oidium, phylloxera and bunch of leaves. Low degree of winter resistance.
"White Muscat"142 daysBisexual flowering. The brush is cylindrical or cylindrical, often with a wing, of dense consistency. Average weight up to 455 gRounded, often deformed, with a yellowish-gold tint. Peel of medium thickness. Pulp with high juiciness and sufficiently pronounced muscatUniversal useUnstable to most diseases and pests
"Muscat red superearly"96-101 daysMedium in height or high. Medium and large brushes weighing 0.3-0.6 kg, cylindrical, moderate in density and looseRounded or slightly oval, red; when ripe, they become almost black-violetDining destinationAverage resistance to mildew, oidium, is almost not affected by gray rot. Withstands frosts down to -23 ° С
"Muscat of Hamburg"147 daysMedium height. Bisexual flowering. The grape cluster is medium-sized or large, conical, branched, sometimes winged, friable.Mostly large, prone to pea. The grapes are round and oval; the color is violet-blue with a dense spring. The skin is relatively dense. The pulp is fleshy, juicy.Universal purposeNot winter-hardy enough, unstable to viral and fungal diseases, as well as phylloxera.
"Delight"111-122 daysMedium or tall. Conical brushes, sometimes shapeless, large and very large, moderately dense.Large or very large, slightly oval, white, with a tan on the sunny side, pleasant taste, with a significant sugar content. The pulp with a crunch, harmonious taste, the skin of the berries is moderately dense.Dining destinationWinter resistance in the region of -25 ° C, rarely affected by mildew and gray rot.
"Muscat of Dievsky"Early ripeningBisexual flowering type, plants are tall. The brushes are large and moderately loose, no peeling.Weighing up to 20 g, white, yellowish on the sunny side, oval or conical shape. The pulp is fleshy-juicy, the skin of the berry is completely eaten.Dining destinationAlmost not affected by diseases.
Muscat RussianMatures very earlyLarge brushes, cylindrical, 16-18 cm long.It has an elongated shape, pinkish-yellow in color, with a dense skin, juicy pulp and a slight smack of nutmeg.Dining destinationVirtually not affected by viral diseases.
"Italy"152-162 daysHigh. Bisexual flowering. The brush is relatively loose, large, cylindrical, often branched, weighing 0.6 kg.Very large, oval or ovoid, yellowish amber, matte. The skin is strong, thick. The pulp is fleshy.Dining destinationFrost resistance is low. Rarely sick with mildew, gray rot. Often struck by oidium.
"Muscat Livadia"Early ripeningMedium height. Bisexual flowering. The brush is slightly loose, large and branched, weighing up to 0.55 kg.Large, ovoid, greenish-yellow or golden yellow. The skin is thin and durable. The pulp is dense and fleshy.Dining destinationFrost resistance to -21 ° C. Almost not affected by phylloxera, mildew, oidium, gray rot.

Care Features

Timely, and most importantly, the proper implementation of the care of grape bushes is an integral part of the cultivation of this plant. Nutmegs are not always demanding and capricious in terms of care. Vineyards need the following agricultural activities:

  1. It is recommended to use a drip irrigation system for irrigation, which very effectively moisturizes the soil and prevents excessive overmoistening.
  2. After manual irrigation, it is desirable to carry out high-quality mulching with peat-humus mixtures, which provide the plant with additional nutrition, especially necessary at the stage of active vegetation.
  3. The category of the most important and basic measures for the care of grape bushes includes competent and timely pruning, with which it is possible to suppress the longitudinal polarity of the shoots, as well as regulating growth and fruiting, creating the best conditions for lighting and air exchange.
  4. The soil around grape bushes and in the aisles should be regularly freed from weeds, and it is also necessary to carry out high-quality, but not too deep loosening, which improves aeration.
  5. It is very important to carry out effective preventive spraying of vineyards in order to protect against the most dangerous diseases and pests. Use for spraying should be the most effective fungicides and insecticides. In addition, it is important to comply with the processing time of plants, so as not to harm the grapes.

A properly laid vineyard should be equipped with supports in the form of trellises, to which the vine is fixed. Equally important is the timely shelter of young grape bushes, as well as non-winter-hardy hybrid forms and varieties unstable to low temperature indicators. In regions with severe climatic conditions, complex-resistant grape varieties and hybrids are also subject to shelter.

You may also be interested in an article in which we talk about wine grapes.

Reviews of winegrowers

Despite the fact that many gardeners prefer to cultivate ordinary grape varieties, a large number of winegrowers give preference to nutmeg grapes. Such varieties and hybrids have a very unusual characteristic taste and aroma.

Many gardeners are frightened by the prevailing opinion in certain circles that nutmegs are very demanding and need special attention. In addition, the taste characteristics of summer nutmegs are very different and can vary greatly depending on the region of growth, as well as weather conditions.

Nutmegs have a large number of benefits that are so appreciated by winegrowers. In addition to non-standard taste, such grapes are characterized by the stability of fruiting and the marketable appearance of berries. Moreover, gardeners have a great opportunity to stretch the fruiting period of the plant and get a stepson crop, which, when ripened, does not help to delay the ripening of the vine.

Grapes have excellent data "Muscat Pleven", which has a similar origin with Bulgaria grapes and can safely claim to be one of the most popular and best varieties. The variety has a very similar taste. "Gift of Voitovich"whose berries have a very nice purple color.

The main characteristics of various varieties and hybrids of muscat grapes and forms derived from it are always very different. Berries can be small or very large, with a significant number of seeds or completely seedless, bright purple or almost transparent in the sun.

How to plant grapes correctly

But all these varieties and hybrids combine amazing sunshine, as well as a unique muscat aroma, which can vary from a slight and hardly perceptible to pronounced. Any winegrower can choose the most attractive muscat for him, which will be an excellent and high-yielding specimen in a home vineyard.