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The use of rodenticides in agriculture is considered to be very important. Such means help to avoid the appearance and spread of rodents, which seriously harm the plantings of cultivated plants. These drugs are chemical elements that are used to eliminate rodents. They are distinguished by convenient preparative forms, but the main disadvantage of such funds is considered to be a high degree of toxicity.
What are rodenticides
These drugs have been developed to control rodents. With their help, it is possible to reduce the number of mice, rats, voles. Such substances are highly effective.
History of appearance
Initially, mechanical means and biological preparations were used to control rodents. However, such activities were not suitable for rodent control in the field or in large storage facilities.
To protect the crop from parasites, people used all kinds of toxic agents. Arsenic was one of the first drugs. However, later on it had to be abandoned. This has been associated with negative effects on humans and pets. Subsequently, other arsenic-based agents began to be used - in particular, arsenite and calcium arsenate.
At the beginning of the 20th century, gas control methods began to be used. In 1917, asphyxiating gases were used for the first time. At the next stage, they began to use rats, zinc phosphide, glyfluorine. These agents served as food baits. Then, in the middle of the 20th century, anticoagulants began to be used to protect plants. They are considered the most effective rodenticides to this day.
Such funds can be of the following varieties:
- Acute action - lead to instant death of rodents. This happens in half an hour or a day. Such products contain potent components - zinc phosphide, arsenic, strychnine.
- Chronic exposure - this group includes anticoagulants. When the product is eaten, toxic substances gradually accumulate in the rodent's body. When the critical volume is reached, the rodents die. At the same time, the rest of the animals continue to eat the bait.
Method of penetration and mechanism of action of the agent
Rodenticides have an intestinal effect in rodents. This means that they act through the digestive organs. As part of such funds, anticoagulants are present. These elements accumulate in the rodent's body. As a result, they gradually reduce blood clotting and increase vascular permeability.
The animal dies due to multiple internal hemorrhages. Since the rodent does not feel a sudden deterioration in well-being, it has no fear of bait. He eats it again, which leads to the accumulation of poison.
Instructions for use of the drug
The use of rodenticides can vary. These substances are divided into bait and non-bait substances.
In this case, baits are used that are eaten by rodents. Such substances have the following varieties:
- Powdered - they contain blood anticoagulants, which have an indirect effect in combination with flour, sugar and oatmeal. Such funds are highly effective. They are especially effective in relation to rats.
- Cereals - contains whole or crushed cereals.
- Waxed - in this case, a mixture of grains in paraffin is used. Sugar and vegetable oil are also added to the composition. These substances are often used in high humidity environments.
- Granular - are molded cereal mixtures.
- Pastry - consist of flour, sugar, vegetable oil. Moreover, the mixture has a dough consistency. For granivores, this is the most attractive bait.
- Wet - is a poison that has a sharp effect and is combined with bread or cereal crumbs, as well as minced meat and fish. Such agents are often used for poor eating of dry formulations.
- Liquid - is a sugar solution with a concentration of 5-10%. Milk, water, beer or other suitable liquid can be used as a base. A concentrated anticoagulant is applied on top, which is mixed with vegetable oil. Also, the composition may contain water-soluble toxic agents.
In this case, areas of accumulation of rodents - burrows or passages - are treated with poison. The substance enters the body during eating or washing. In this case, it is important to use products that do not pose a danger to people and pets. Many formulations are slow acting. Therefore, rodents can spread them far beyond the processing zone.
Rodenticides can be of different types:
- Dusts are made from anticoagulants of 1-2 generations. They include powder fillers. These include starch or flour. Thanks to such components, the poison sticks to the covers of pests. Talc and silica gel adhere most strongly to the skin and coat.
- Pastes - they are made from means of acute action. First of all, α-naphthylthiourea is used for this. The poison is combined with an adhesive base. It can be margarine, petroleum jelly, solid oil. Pastes are highly effective against resistant rodent populations.
- Foams - they contain warfarin and difacinone in combination with form-building agents. Such drugs adhere well. However, their effect does not exceed 2 weeks. Therefore, the substances cannot be used for long-term processing.
When using rodenticides, the following rules should be observed:
- Study the instructions for using the product.
- Apply formulations only in the absence of allergies. Do not use drugs for pregnant and lactating women.
- Before laying out or preparing baits, put on a protective suit, shoes, gloves.
- Special glasses are suitable for eye protection. To avoid the ingress of toxic substances into the respiratory system, it is worth wearing a respirator or mask.
- After contact with chemicals, gloves should be washed in a soda solution. The same applies to shoes, glasses and a respirator.
- Take off clothes, shake well and dry. Then put it in a box for storage.
- During the treatment, do not eat, drink, smoke.
- Do not use funds in the presence of skin lesions.
How do they affect animals and people?
Many substances in this category are considered highly toxic to humans and animals. Therefore, when using them, it is important to adhere to all precautions. At the same time, there are also low-risk means. Lures with anticoagulant substances can be used for the treatment of living quarters, medical, food, and children's institutions.
In case of poisoning with rodenticide, it is recommended to see a doctor immediately. Before that, you need to take the following measures:
- Eliminate contact with a poisonous agent and ensure the mechanical removal of toxic substances from the body. If intoxication is associated with harmful fumes, the person needs to be taken to fresh air. If toxic substances have entered the stomach, it must be rinsed immediately.
- Apply sorbents. After gastric lavage, the patient should be given activated charcoal. For 10 kilograms of weight, it is worth using 1 tablet of the substance. It is also necessary to use a fast-acting laxative. This will help to bind and cleanse the body of poison.
- Apply specific antidotes. They need to be introduced at the stage of medical care. In case of anticoagulant poisoning, vitamin K should be used.
Rodenticides are effective treatments for controlling dangerous rodents. In order for the use of such substances to be effective, it is recommended to strictly adhere to the instructions. Compliance with safety precautions is also important.