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Ficus, or Ficus, is an evergreen plant belonging to the Mulberry family. Currently, there are more than fifteen hundred species of ficus.
A ficus houseplant is characterized by a variety of species that differ in height, shape of branches and leaves, as well as color.
Leaves can be alternate, less often opposite, whole, serrated or lobed. Stipules are large in size. All parts of the ficus are characterized by the presence of milky juice, which can be used for medical purposes. Ficus flowers are collected in the axillary type of inflorescences. They can be either single or grouped, forming an ear or a kind of brush.
Benefit and harm
A significant part of the species of ficus are useful plants. In the industrial sphere, varieties that allow the production of rubber play an important role. These plants include Elastica, Nymphaeifolia, Populnea, Radula, Sylvestris, Elliptica, and Prinoiddes. Some representatives, including Carica, Sycomorus, Religiosa, Rumphii and Bengalensis, form edible fruits with a high sugar content. Ficus foliage Carica is used as a medicinal raw material.
The population of the Indian state of Meghalaya, many centuries ago, used the roots of rubber-bearing ficuses to grow "living bridges." For this purpose, poles from bamboo are thrown through a pond or ditch with the ficus roots pointing at them, which, after ten years, are able to grow to the opposite bank. The length of such a vegetable bridge can be 30 meters. The design can support more than 50 people at a time.
Caring for ficus at home is not difficult, since it is one of the most unpretentious indoor plants.
Ficus: selection, cultivation, care
It is necessary to place the plant on well-lit window sills facing west or east. In summer, ficuses need to be shaded, and in winter it is recommended to highlight the plant for several hours a day.
The optimum temperature for ficus in spring and summer is from 23 to 25 degrees. In autumn and winter, temperatures can range from 12 to 15 degrees Celsius. The plant needs to be protected from drafts and hot air coming from heating devices.
The standard humidity parameters in the living room are sufficient for the full growth and development of ficus. If the air is too dry, you should increase the humidity artificially.
In the summer season, this plant requires a fairly plentiful watering and spraying with water at room temperature. In the autumn-winter period, watering is reduced and carried out as the soil dries.
In summer, fertilizer is applied every ten days. For top dressing, ready-made organic and mineral fertilizers are used, which should be alternated. In winter, the amount of fertilizing is reduced or fertilizer application is completely stopped.
Crohn plants can be given almost any shape. In order to create a bush-like shape, the upper shoots are subject to removal. You can get a room tree by trimming the side shoots. Any pruning is done in spring or in the first decade of summer.
Depending on the species, propagation of the plant is allowed both by the method of cuttings, and with the help of air layers, as well as seeds. Most often in indoor floriculture the method of cuttings is used. with rooting a plant in water or soil substrate.
Passport home ficus
Design options for the "Passport" of the plant may be different. In any case, such a document allows a beginner grower to navigate the features of a houseplant and get acquainted with the basic rules for caring for it.
- The homeland of the plant is the tropical regions of Asia and Africa.
- There are more than two thousand species of this plant.
- Homemade ficus is among the unpretentious houseplants.
- Ficus is a photophilous plant.
- Watering ficus is necessary once or twice a week.
- In summer, daily spraying of the plant should be carried out.
- Transplant the plant should be transplanted annually in mid-March.
Compliance with the requirements listed in the passport significantly reduces the risk of plant damage by diseases or pests.
The lower foliage of tree-like species of domestic ficus may fall from time to time due to natural, or physiological, reasons. Growth arrest, as well as active loss of green mass, are most often the result of improper plant care.
The main reasons may lie in the changing conditions of detention. In addition, the plant can stop growing when exposed to drafts, as well as as a result of temperature changes or when changing lighting. Very often, growth retardation is caused by a lack of nutrients.
Very often, as a result of waterlogging or other disorders of care, the plant is affected fungal diseases or root rot. Rotting of the root system is provoked by excessive soil moisture. An excess of fertilizers causes the same effect.
The most common pest ficus insects are spider mite, mealybug, thrips, scale insects or false shields. Regular examinations allow you to timely notice plant parasites and conduct therapeutic measures.
How to crop ficus benjamin
Homemade ficuses, regardless of species and variety, are quite attractive indoor plants. However, as they grow, ficuses can lose their decorative effect. To avoid this, you need to follow the simple rules for care, which include forming crown pruning, regular removal of dust from leaves, and timely protection of plants from diseases and pests.