Cucumber cultivation: from variety selection to harvest

Cucumber cultivation: from variety selection to harvest

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Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) - A well-known vegetable crop that can be grown in open and closed ground. The plant is cultivated almost throughout the globe. The homeland of cucumber is Asia.

General description

The presented vegetable has excellent taste and is used for food and as a remedy. Periodic consumption of cucumbers can improve the absorption of fats and proteins, and also activates the appetite. One fruit contains up to 96% water and 4% dry matter. The vegetable is rich in vitamins, and the bitterness of some cucumbers is due to the high content of cucurbitacin.

The plant can reach a length of 2 m, but some species grow only up to 20 cm. The leaves are arranged alternately, meter roots. Dioecious flowers. Some forms of the plant are dioecious. The fruit of the cucumber is a false berry, its shape varies depending on the variety, the seeds are oval, whitish in color.

Variety of cucumber varieties

There are many varieties of cucumbers. They vary in shape, fruiting time and requirements for growing conditions. Some varieties feel great in open ground, others prefer to grow in a greenhouse.

Hybrids and varieties for open ground

Hybrids and varieties for open ground have been planted since the end of May. All varieties of cucumber have their own unique characteristics, which they differ from each other.

Grade nameKey FeaturesFruit characterizationDisease and weather resistant
Competitor (Concurrens)Ripening lasts 1.5 months, planting cucumbers in early JuneIf the fruits do not get water, they will be bitterResistant to bacterial diseases
Graceful (Izyaschnyiy)Green and juicy yellowing fruitsRefined fruit shape, cucumber weight - 120 gGood disease resistance
Altai (Altaicus)38 day ripeningFruits are light green, small, used for making saladsGood weather and disease resistance
Lapland F1 (Laplandiya)Medium-bush bush, strong, ripening on day 45Fruits are dark green, elongated, size - up to 9 cmGood resistance to bacteriosis and powdery mildew
Pasalimo F1 (Pasalimo)Early ripening variety, bush strong, medium-high climbingFruits are cylindrical, tuberous, up to 9 cmDisease resistant grade

Bee pollinated varieties for protected ground

Bee pollinated varieties for indoor use are selected by gardeners because their fruits are tastier. But in order for the plants to be pollinated, it will be necessary to attract insects into the greenhouse.

Grade nameKey FeaturesFruit characterizationDisease and weather resistant
Rodnichok F1Mid-ripening variety, the bush reaches a height of 3 m, ripening on day 55The fruits are smooth, the shape is cylindricalResistance to heat and disease
Libella F1 (Libella)Mid-season variety, high productivityThe fruits are medium, suitable for pickling, salting and cooking saladsPowdery Mildew Resistance
Annushka F1 (Annushka)Mid-season bee pollinated, female flowering typeRibbed fruits, cylindrical, with stripesHigh disease resistance
Marathon (Marafon)Bee pollinated variety, female flowering typeFruit size - up to 23 cm, ripening by July 1Resistance to cucumber mosaic virus
ManulHigh yield bee pollinated varietyFruits are cylindrical with white spikes, up to 23 cm longThe variety does not tolerate frost

Features of parthenocarpic cucumbers

Parthenocarpic varieties are able to form fruits without the participation of bees. Their palatability is high, the yield is good, their resistance to diseases is not bad. It is important to remove ripened cucumbers from plants in a timely manner so that productivity is not reduced.

Grade nameKey FeaturesFruit characterizationDisease and weather resistant
MalachiteLate ripe salad gradeFruits up to 25 cm, weight - up to 300 gThe variety is susceptible to disease.
Greenfruit (Zelenoplodnyi)Mid-season variety, universal purposeFruits are medium, elongated, suitable for picklingExcellent powdery mildew resistance
Blanca F1Early ripe hybrid with high yieldFruits up to 7 cm, juicy, used fresh and for picklingGood disease resistance
Petrel F1 (Procellaria pelagic)High-yielding varietyJuicy fruitsThe variety is undemanding to weather conditions.
German F1 (German)A popular variety actively used for growing in greenhousesThe size of the fruit is up to 10 cm, the taste is excellentUnpretentious cultivation grade

How to grow cucumbers in a greenhouse

Agrotechnics growing cucumbers

In order for the crop of cucumbers to please, you should properly grow them. The rules of cultivation are simple and do not require a lot of attention or time.

Preparing seeds for sowing

Before planting seeds in the soil, they must be prepared.

  • Seeds of the selected cucumber variety, which were collected 2 years before sowing, must be soaked in water.
  • Take out the full-fledged seeds. Seeds that emerged in the water should be discarded.
  • Then the seeds will be divided into small, medium and large. Landing is carried out only in divided fractions.
  • The next stage is seed disinfection, which first involves heating them, then keeping them in a solution of boric acid and potassium permanganate, and then washing. You can irradiate seeds under ultraviolet light.
  • To saturate with micronutrients, wood ash should be treated - the seeds are placed in a solution consisting of a liter of water and 2 tbsp. tablespoons of ash per day.
  • It remains to harden the seeds, keeping them in wet sand at a temperature of +25aboutC until swelling, and then placed in the refrigerator for 2 days at a temperature of -2 aboutC for 3 days.

Growing seedlings and preparing ridges

To obtain a plentiful crop of cucumbers, it is important to properly prepare the soil and grow healthy seedlings. The soil is prepared in advance, seedlings, too, so that she has time to get stronger.

Seat preparation

In autumn, the proposed site must be dug up, fertilized, usually organics are used. During landing, you can put bird droppings in the wells, mixing it with the ground (up to 50 g each).

The beds are prepared in one of the presented ways:

  • Can do ridge row, while it will be easy to loosen and weed the ground, as well as fertilize vegetables. However, when watering, the water will drain, and in the rain the leaves will get dirty with dirt, which can lead to illness.
  • Do tunnels so that they are lower than the track, subsequently put the mulch to its level. In this case, you can do without loosening and weeding. Advantages of the method: it is easy to irrigate, it becomes possible to cover plants when frost occurs. But to apply the presented method can only be in the case when groundwater is not located close to the surface of the soil.
  • High beds followed by tying cucumbers. This is the most convenient way, since the water does not go away and it is convenient to carry out processing procedures.

Rules for growing seedlings

In order for the cucumber seeds to sprout quickly, it is recommended to sparge them - place them in a container of water for 18 days and turn on the aquarium compressor. Then landing is carried out.

Soil for seedlings is prepared in a special way. It should consist of:

  • peat;
  • humus;
  • sand;
  • sawdust.

Then, 1 teaspoon of urea and nitrophoska, as well as a glass of wood ash, are added to the composition. Packaging that is suitable for seedlings of cucumbers - peat or paper cups.

The scheme of planting cucumbers

Cucumbers are planted in the greenhouse in May. It is better to use a two-line scheme on ridges and ridges. The height of the ridges should reach about 25 cm, width - 100 cm. The use of steam ridges gives a good effect. 40-centimeter holes are dug in them, on the bottom of which a layer of fresh manure is placed. Then it is covered with 14 cm of soil.

Cucumbers: the formation of bushes

Basic crop care rules

A vegetable needs constant humidity, the temperature should not be lower than 17 degrees, if it drops, the plant dies. Therefore, cucumber is placed on the site only when there is confidence that there will be no more frosts.

A favorable place for cucumbers are such areas on which onions, cabbage, tomatoes and potatoes used to grow. Where the pumpkin and melon plants were located, it is not worth planting a cucumber. As care measures, it is worth highlighting the formation of a bush, watering, pinching and feeding.

On the 3rd day after planting, the cucumbers are tied to the trellis. It is necessary to form a vegetable in one stalk; the crown of the main stalk is pinched. Vegetable requires regular ventilation and free access of bees. You can lure insects using sugar syrup.

What sick cucumbers and how to deal with diseases

Cucumbers, like any culture, can get sick. To cure a vegetable of an ailment, it is important to correctly recognize what he is sick with and take appropriate measures.

Disease nameHow to recognize a diseaseTreatment methods
Alternariosis (Alternaria)Hothouse disease, brown 2-centimeter spots form on the back of the leavesSpraying with Bordeaux liquid and Oxychloride at 2-week intervals
Anthracnose (Colletotrichum lagenariu)Brown spots appear on the root neck of the seedlings; there are yellow and brown spots on the leaves with tearsSpraying with special means against putrefactive diseases
Ascochitosis (Ascochyta cucumis)Stains on stems, fruits and leaves, fruits can rotFungal treatment
White rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum)The infected parts of the plant become watery, white, then the mycelia turn blackThe introduction of "Trichodermin", coating the stems with "Rovral" and "Sumylex"
Cladosporiosis (Cladosporium cucumerinum)Ulcers on the fruit, brown spots on the leaves and mycelium on the back of the foliageGreenhouse cleaning, fungicide use

Pests of cucumbers and the rules for controlling them

The enemies of cucumbers are pests. They can significantly reduce the yield, so it is important to deal with them correctly.

Pest nameNature of damage to the plantWays to fight
Slugs (Stylommatophora)Young slugs spoil seedlings, adults gnaw leaves of cucumberMechanical collection or use of pesticides
Gall Nematodes (Nematoda)Spoil the roots, stems and seeds of cucumbersCrop rotation, use of Fitoferm
Wireworms (Elateridae)Eat roots and seedsLoosening the soil from May to July, digging the soil for the winter, applying nitrogen fertilizers
Bears (lat.Gryllotalpidae)Violate the root systemYou can pour water and vegetable oil into the moves or set traps
Greenhouse Whitefly (Trialeurodesvaporariorum Westwood)It feeds on leaf juice, carries virusesUse of pieces of plywood painted in yellow color and greased with a sticky substance, destruction of weeds
Spider mite (Tetranychus urticae)A cobweb forms on the bottom of the leaves.Maintaining high humidity, weed control, using Actellica
Aphids (Aphis gossypii)Provides a pad and promotes the formation of soot fungiDestruction of weeds, spraying with infusion of garlic or a solution of ash and soap

In order for cucumbers to please juicy and crispy fruits, it is necessary to carefully care for them. It is important to properly prepare the seeds, grow seedlings, prepare the soil, timely water and protect the plants from pests and diseases. Then the harvest will succeed!

How to care for cucumbers