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The Abyssinian well, or the so-called needle-well, is one of the most budgetary and best options presented by a shallow well, which pumps water from aquifer. Thanks to this principle of well operation, the name of the well on sand is obtained.
Features of the Abyssinian well
If there is a fairly modest budget in the absence of a central water supply system, the best option, most often, is to create a simple and inexpensive Abyssinian well with your own hands, which is often called an ordinary aquifer needle. The Abyssinian well is a standard well, with a diameter of 1-2 inches, to the first aquifer. Its depth does not exceed 10 meters.
A bit of history
The Abyssinian well got its name from the country where it was first used by the English expedition, which carried out its work in the early 19th century. In Russia, these wells were better known under the name of the Norton wells.
Previously, the well was arranged using a section of a regular water pipe, the diameter of which could vary from 1 to 1.5 inches. A characteristic feature was a sharp tip, above which a perforated pipe was located. This design was located at the depth of the first aquifer.
A feature of the water pipe was casing and operational use. History, unfortunately, has not preserved the true author of this invention.
In order to more quickly reach the upper aquifers and extract water, a special device is most often used by which an iron pipe is driven into the ground. At the next stages of work, this pipe is the core of a tubular well. The small diameter of the aquifer involves the use of a hand pump or a surface pump station.
Advantages and disadvantages
Like any other aquifer, the Abyssinian well has several advantages and some disadvantages.
The pluses include:
- quick arrangement;
- the operational life of the structure reaches 20 years or more;
- purity of produced water;
- there is no significant effect on the foundation of the nearest buildings;
- high level of performance;
- insignificant dimensions of the structure;
- ease of connection;
- tightness of the created structure.
By cons include limited depth and the ability to use for certain geological factors. In addition, the extracted water is not always suitable for drinking.
What to choose an Abyssinian well or well
The difference between the Abyssinian well and artesian
Of course, the creation of an Abyssinian well has certain features. Besides, There are a number of parameters that distinguish this type of water supply from the use of artesian wells, which are common in our time:
- the depth of artesian water very often exceeds 20 m, and water using the Abyssinian well can be obtained with an aquifer depth of no more than 10 meters;
- if the extraction of artesian water is associated with the drilling process, then the Abyssinian well is equipped using the so-called driving method, which involves easier extraction of water.
Creating an Abyssinian well is a less time-consuming process, which is often carried out independently, without involving expensive equipment and professional specialists.
The technology with which you can install the Abyssinian well with your own hands is not particularly difficult.
At the initial stage, the level of groundwater occurrence is determined:
- depth measurement of a nearby well by means of a rope with a sinker;
- implementation of test drilling for water;
- assessment of surface vegetation.
A driven well allows water to be taken from a depth of not more than 15 m. The location of the well should have a distance of 25 m from the compost pit and septic tank.
Necessary tools and materials
For independent arrangement of the Abyssinian well, the following set of tools and working materials should be prepared:
- manual water column;
- a needle, the length of which is 1.5 m with a strainer made of stainless steel and a cone-shaped headband;
- three pipes with a length of 1.5 m, with a polymer or galvanized coating;
- percussion instrument-woman.
In addition, you should purchase a special podbabok, which is a clamp with a pair of cone-shaped inserts. Such a device has the capabilities of a collet clamp and is a cone-shaped element mounted on the rod with a thrust washer.
Today, several methods of driving are practiced, which have some differences both in technology and in efficiency. The main requirement for all methods of driving is to maintain the integrity and tightness of the pipes and the well filter.
The method of driving an Abyssinian well using a bar is quite simple. This method is the most gentle, since the impulse from the blow falls on the tip of the needle, which drags the shaft of the shaft along with it. The load is in tension, not in compression of the couplings involved in the process. The standard bar has a length of 14 m and a weight of 20 kg.
- A filter string is inserted into the drilled well.
- We assemble the rod from the rods so that the height of the rod exceeds the height of the column.
- A rod is inserted into the column and hammered, with a "throw" of the bar inside the pipe.
- Then the next bar, the coupling, the next pipe and so on is mounted. In the process, water is periodically poured into the pipe.
Grandma with a stub
For work on equipping the well with this method, a headstock is used not sliding on the rod, but. In order to protect the thread of the rod, a plug is installed in the upper part. It is recommended to use dibs, the weight of which starts from 30 kg or more.
Grandma with a tavern
When sinking, the method of raising the headstock and throwing it through the pipe onto the pit is used. As a result, the trunk is deepened to its height with successive build-up by its next pipe. The headstock, dressing on top, has a weight of 22 kg, and the stroke length is about 80 cm.
In order for the water well to work for a long time, and also to protect it from the formation of any blockages or siltation and to maintain productivity at the proper level, it is very important to use the so-called systematic pumping.
To date, the following methods of pumping a well are subject to use:
- flushing the well with water;
- blowing wells with air;
- application for pumping a water well of a quality pump;
- application of the bailer.
Abyssinian wells are rarely contaminated. Performance indicators of such a water supply system practically do not fall. The needle-well is characterized by ease of use, but regular maintenance and cleaning of the system can significantly extend the life of the needle.
How to clean an Abyssinian well
With rare exceptions, water from the Abyssinian well can be consumed without purification. Before disinfection, water should usually be cleaned, in which the removal of helminth eggs, as well as a significant portion of pathogens, takes place. The simplest way to clean water is to pass it through sand and coal. A more complex method of water treatment refers to the use of compact or stationary treatment plants, as well as special water filters.
How to drill an Abyssinian well
The Abyssinian well is one of the most affordable ways to organize domestic autonomous water supply, which does not require significant costs for the creation and subsequent maintenance of the system. However, at low flow rates, water should be systematically pumped out of the well. If the installation is done correctly, the standard service life of such a well is several tens of years.