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Plums are among the popular fruit and berry plants that are successfully grown both on an industrial scale and by private gardeners. To get a decent crop, you should choose the right variety, as well as adhere to the relevant characteristics of agricultural technology.
Biological features of plums
Plum (from Latin Prúnus) It is a common plant in many countries from the Pink family, or Rosaceae. The family combines more than two hundred species that are most often cultivated in the northern temperate regions. A significant part of the representatives relates to fruit crops that are widely known and in demand among gardeners.
Trees may have different growth powers. and have simple, lanceolate foliage with denticles on the edges. The flowers form white or pink, and have five petals and as many sepals. The type of arrangement of flowers is a single or a combination of up to six flowers in inflorescences-umbrellas. The fruit is represented by a drupe with a sufficiently large bone.
Popular plum varieties
The main plum varieties come from several botanical species, including home plums, thorns, thorns, Ussuri plums and hybrids.
Early ripe varieties
Growing early ripe varieties allows you to get the earliest harvest, which in its quality and taste characteristics is not inferior to mid-ripening and later ripening fruits.
|Grade name||Description||Fruit characterization||Disease resistance|
|"Greengage Karbysheva"||The originator is the Donetsk Garden Institute. Self-infertile grade. It is used fresh, for canning and receiving high-quality prunes.||Weight up to 50 g, round, red with a slight bluish coating. The pulp is yellow, juicy, sweet, aromatic.||Resistance to diseases and frost resistance are quite high.|
|"Alyonushka"||Average growth force, pyramidal, elevated, average density of the crown. Shoots of red-brown color.||Weight up to 35 g, rounded oval. The skin is relatively thin, dark red. The pulp is orange in color, medium-dense, juicy, crisp, with colorless juice.||Foliage and young shoots tend to damage aphids. Frost resistance up to -25 C.|
|Red ball||The average growth power of trees. Crohn rounded, branches hanging. The average thickening of the crown.||Weight up to 45 g, round shape, red color with a bluish bloom. The pulp is light yellow, friable, fibrous, sweet and aromatic.||High resistance to damage by kleasterosporiosis and monilial burn.|
|"Greengage early"||The originator is the Institute of Horticulture, Donetsk. Productivity is high and stable. The variety is self-infertile. The average strength of growth. Round-bent crown shape.||Weight up to 50 g. Color yellow, with a waxy coating and orange blush. The pulp is greenish yellow, dense, sweet with sourness and honey aroma.||High resistance to clasterosporiosis and monilial burn. Frost resistant grade.|
|Eurasia 21||Vigorous, with a spreading and multidirectional crown of trees.||Rounded, weight up to 35 g. Red-burgundy, with a wax coating. The flesh is yellowish-orange, juicy, aromatic.||Stable resistance to rot and other diseases. Frost resistance up to -20 ° С.|
Mid-season varieties are extremely popular among gardeners. Compared with early varieties, they have a more complete and rich taste and aroma.
|Grade name||Description||Fruit characterization||Disease resistance|
|"Hungarian Belarusian"||Medium-sized trees with an oval-round crown. Partial self-infertility.||Weight up to 39 g, round shape, purple with a blue tint color. Strong wax coating. The pulp is orange, dense, sweet and sour.||High resistance to "hole" and monilial burn.|
|"Greengage Altana"||Great growth force, round-oval crown, leaves bluntly pointed, bright green.||Weight up to 39 g. The shape is round, pinkish-red skin with a strong wax coating. The pulp is yellow, fibrous, juicy.||Average frost resistance. Resistance to polystygomiasis, klyasterosporioz, "sharke" high. Resistance to monilial burn is low.|
|"Souvenir of the East"||The tree is tall, the crown is spreading, the leaves are thin, leathery.||Weight is up to 39 g. The shape is round, the color is orange, turning into burgundy. The flesh is yellowish-orange, dense, juicy.||Propensity to damage by kleasterosporiosis or holey spotting.|
|"Hair"||A tall tree, the crown is wide-rounded, compact. The variety is self-infertile.||Weight is from 31 to 48 g. The form is oval. Uneven dark bluish-violet color with spotting. The pulp is yellow-green, juicy, dense. The taste is sweet and sour.||Frost resistance is average. Resistance to clastosporiosis is insufficient.|
|"Souvenir of the East"||The average strength of growth. High fruiting. Universal use.||Weight up to 41 g. Dark blue color of the skin. The pulp is yellow, dense, crunchy, sweet.||Disease resistance and frost resistance are sufficient.|
Late ripening varieties
Varieties of late ripening fruit from August 25 and until the middle of the first autumn month. Such varieties do not always have time to fully mature in many regions, so they are most often grown in the southern regions.
|Grade name||Description||Fruit characterization||Disease resistance|
|"The president"||Trees above average growth. Productivity is from 40 to 70 kg.||Weight up to 49 g, blue skin color with a wax coating. The pulp is yellow, juicy. Universal application.||Refers to winter hardiness. Medium disease resistance.|
|"Hungarian Pulkovo"||A tree of high growth, with a wide and round, very dense crown. Self-made variety.||Weight is up to 21 g. Color is red or purple, with a plentiful wax coating. The pulp is amber, yellow, sour-sweet.||It has high winter hardiness. Not sufficiently resistant to moniliosis.|
|Wikana||The tree is small, of weak growth, the crown is drooping, sparse.||Weight is up to 26 g. The skin is burgundy, with noticeable subcutaneous dots and pronounced wax coating. The flesh is light yellow, sour-sweet.||Moderate resistance to various diseases.|
|Valor Canadian||A medium-growth tree with a fairly dense crown.||Weight is up to 48 g. Peel of blue-violet color with transition to burgundy color. The pulp is dense, uniform. The taste is great.||It is resistant to major diseases and good winter hardiness.|
|"Memory of Timiryazev"||The tree is medium in height, with a small stem and a spreading crown.||Weight 24 g. The shape is oval, yellow skin with a tan and a light gray plaque. The pulp is saturated amber color, juicy and dense.||Low frost resistance of branches. May be affected by aphids and kleasterosporiosis.|
You can find out more about plum varieties here.
Rules for planting a plum
Plum planting, like any other fruit trees, should begin with soil preparation:
- the landing place should be on a hill and well lit;
- it is advisable to use for planting areas with light loamy soil;
- groundwater level should be no closer than 1.5 m to the surface;
- in Central Russia, landing is carried out in the spring, and in the southern regions, landing is performed in the fall;
- the distance between the trees to be planted, depending on the strength of growth, should be from 3.5 to 4 m;
- the landing pit should have a width of 80 x 40 cm and a depth of 50 to 60 cm;
- in a plant installed in a pit, you need to carefully straighten all the roots and drive a stake next to the stem, without injuring the root system;
- a pit with the root system should be covered with an upper layer of soil mixed with compost, superphosphates, wood ash or potassium chloride;
- the root neck of the plant should be 3-5 cm above the ground.
Plum: variety selection (video)
The seedling should be tied to a stake. Around the plant is a hole for watering the plant at the rate of two buckets for each seedling. It is recommended to mulch the soil around the stem with peat or humus to maintain moisture.
Features of plum care
The scheme of events along the plum tree is based on several main features that distinguish this fruit tree from other garden plantings. From the third year of life, the plum needs special attention. Plum has the ability to resume growth in the autumn and in warm, humid weather, plum trees begin active growth.
Systematic top dressing of plum trees should be carried out taking into account the following recommendations:
- in early spring, a complex of fertilizers with a sufficient content of ammonium sulfate is required;
- acidic soils must be balanced by the addition of lime-ammonium nitrate, lime or wood ash;
- the soil around young plants must be mulched with compost or well-rotted manure;
- feeding plum trees with organics should be done every two to three years during autumn digging;
- in the autumn, the plum especially needs potash and phosphorus fertilizers;
- during the active spring vegetation phase, it is recommended to feed trees with nitrogen-containing fertilizers.
Schedule of feeding plum trees
|Top-up date||Recommended Fertilizer|
|The first decade of May||Dilute in a bucket of water two tablespoons of urea. The consumption for a tree is 1 bucket.|
|The first decade of June||Dilute in a bucket of water 3 tbsp. l nitrofoski. The consumption for a tree is 1 bucket.|
|Mid august||Dilute in a bucket of water two tablespoons of superphosphate. The consumption for a tree is 1 bucket.|
To increase productivity, foliar top dressing with 0.5% urea solution can be carried out. The number of such dressings should be from two to three per season.
To water one young or medium-sized plum tree, at least three buckets of water per week should be used. To water tall and abundant fruiting plants, you need to increase the amount of water by one and a half times.
The most optimal watering periods are in the spring-summer period, when there is an active development of the buds, flowering and the formation of ovaries. Mulching the soil will reduce moisture evaporation.
In order for the plum tree to have a crown shape that is attractive and convenient for maintenance, the most important cultivation step is to carry out forming pruning. The optimal shape of the crown is a sparse-tier type.
The tree stamp should not be higher than 40 cm. At the bottom, no more than 3 branches should be left. On the second tier, you need to leave 2-3 branches. All subsequent tiers should have one branch.
Plum tree crown pruning by year
|First year||After awakening the kidneys, the stem is cleared from the side branches from below by 50 cm. Skeletal branches are cut off in half. The central conductor is cut to a good bud, from a height of 1.5 m from the ground. At the end of July, summer pruning of branches is made, leaving 20 cm from the trunk. Side shoots need to be cut to 15 cm per kidney. Central conductor - no change.|
|Second year||In March, cut the center conductor by 2/3. In July, growths are trimmed on extension of branches to a length of not more than 20 cm. Lateral branches with a reference to the lower kidney should be cut to 15 cm. Strong branches are bent and are attached to the trunk with twine.|
|Third year||Trimming the central conductor zigzag to a height of 2.5 meters. Subsequent annual pruning of new growth and intersecting side branches. In July, pruning side shoots to a length of 20 cm and all intersecting branches. Abnormally growing shoots are completely cut off at the top.|
As a result of such trimming, it is possible to form a pyramidal crown on a wide and massive base.
Rules for growing plums
Plum does not belong to very demanding plants. However, in the Northern regions, as well as regions with little snowy winters and sharp temperature drops, it is very important to take timely measures to protect plums from frost, sunburn and pests.
How to prune a plum (video)
Protecting trees from frost
In addition to whitewashing, young plum trees from severe frosts help protect the use of insulating materials.
Another effective way to protect young plums from frost is to bending branches to the ground, followed by pinning with wooden brackets. Above the bent tree, you should make a small hut of willow twigs. The design needs to be covered with potato tops and roofing materials.
Quality sun protection
To protect plum trees from sunburn in the autumn, whitewashing of boles and forks of skeletal branches with lime mortar. In early spring, whitewashing should be repeated.
In the spring, plum trees should be sprayed several times:
- before budding, means from hole spotting, coccomycosis, fruit and gray rot, and also fungal diseases. In addition, drugs are used to kill hatching pest larvae;
- in the flowering phase, means are used to destroy spider mites and plum weevil;
- after flowering, prophylactic spraying is carried out against putrefactive diseases and plant parasites.
If garden pests are found in the summer, not only affected plants should be sprayed, but also all trees of closely spaced plantings.
Plum propagation methods
Plum quite easily propagated in several ways, which allows you to get a full planting material yourself.
Vegetative propagation of a tree
Most often, the plum propagates vegetatively:
- Graft. On a winter-hardy seedling-rootstock, grafted cuttings from a plum tree should be planted, which should be healthy and of high quality.
- Cuttings. Dig the roots of the plum at a distance of 1.0-1.5 m from the stem. The size of the root cuttings should be about 15 cm with a thickness of 1.5 cm. Cuttings should be planted in the spring in an inclined or vertical direction.
- Root growth. In autumn, the root connecting the mother plant with the process should be chopped, and in the spring, such processes with roots must be dug up and planted in a new permanent place.
Seed propagation of a tree
Seeds should be sown in the autumn during the winter or in the last decade of April. Before planting the seed should be washed, dried and stratified. This method of propagation is convenient if necessary to get seedlings on a stock.
Diseases and pests of plums
Plum trees and fruits often become desirable prey for many pests. In addition, a significant part of the most popular varieties do not have sufficient resistance to most diseases.
|Name of disease or pest||Prevention and treatment measures|
|Moth||The use of girdle trunks with burlap, digging the soil, manual collection of tracks after harvesting.|
|Leaflet||Collection of crawling butterflies at the laying stage. The most effective use of spraying fungicides in early spring.|
|Plum sawfly||High-quality digging of the soil, before flowering, shaking sawflies on rags and destruction. The use of preventive spraying.|
|Unmatched silkworm||Detection and destruction of oviposites treated with kerosene. Preventative treatment.|
|Marsupial disease||Spring spraying with 3% Bordeaux fluid.|
|Holey spotting||Removing the affected shoots in the autumn, spraying with 1% Bordeaux fluid.|
|Monoliosis||Collection and destruction of fallen leaves, destruction of affected shoots and fruits. Double spraying with 3% Bordeaux fluid.|
Despite the fact that the plum comes from Asia, now due to early maturity, high productivity and excellent taste, this fruit tree is cultivated almost everywhere. Plum has a large number of useful properties and is an excellent raw material for various preparations and dishes.