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More recently, only the southern regions have been growing grapes. Today it is cultivated everywhere. Among the most common types are technical varieties used for the preparation of juices, wine and other products. Ayren grapes are not popular among amateur gardeners. At the same time, he is the world leader in terms of occupied area, is the basis for the creation of table wines.
The Ayren grape has been known since the 17th century, when it was named Layren. Even then, wine was prepared from it, but according to reviews, it was not considered tasty. In 1807, two types of Layren were described - known today as Ayren and a table variety. In the future, the technical variety gradually spread across the territory of Spain and today occupies about 30% of the entire area allotted for the vine.
Description and characteristics of Ayren grapes
The variety belongs to white technical types. The plant is vigorous, with well-ripening vines. The leaves are three-lobed, the dissection is average. There is a vault-shaped depression near the petiole. The back of the leaf is slightly pubescent. The flowers of the grapes are bisexual. The bunch is large, highly branched, has the shape of a cylinder or a cone, its density is average. The berries are small, round, light (white or yellow). The pulp is loose, with a thin skin. The taste is harmonious, with a pleasant sourness.
Ayren grape tolerates drought well, is easy to grow and care for.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Gardeners love the Ayren variety and celebrate its advantages, including:
- undemanding to the composition of the soil on which it is grown;
- resistance to high temperatures and dry weather;
- high productivity.
The disadvantages of the variety include:
- average resistance to diseases and pests.
Cultivation of culture
Despite the unpretentiousness of the Airen variety, one should carefully consider the rules for planting grapes. The success of rooting and development of the bush, its yield, and the quality of berries depends on their implementation.
Planting can be done in spring or fall. Both options have their pros and cons.
Planting time in spring starts in March and ends in mid-June. Specific terms depend on the region, climatic conditions. The optimum soil temperature for planting is +10 ⁰С, air is from +5 ⁰С to +15 ⁰С.
In autumn, Ayren grapes are planted from the first days of October. It is not worth delaying the landing. In spring, you should be in time before the onset of heat, and in autumn - before the arrival of frost.
If, after planting the grapes, there was a sharp drop in temperature, a reliable shelter is created for the seedling..
For planting Airen grapes, they choose a place protected from northern winds. A good option is the southwest or southeast side of the house, garage, protected from drafts.
You cannot place the vine under the drain, otherwise the plant will get sick and quickly die.
When planting several bushes for the vineyard, an open, sunny place is determined. It may be gentle or slightly sloping (about 10⁰) to the south.
Before planting, the seedling must be prepared, for which a number of actions must be performed:
- Place the root system of the seedling in water for a day.
- Trim the one-year-old shoot to a height of 4 eyes.
- Remove roots at the upper nodes, shorten at the lower ones.
- Treat the plant with a root formation stimulant.
When planting seedlings in rows, 3 m are left between them, between the bushes - 2 m. Planting pits with a width, length and depth of 80 cm are prepared one and a half months before planting Airen grapes. You can dig one trench for all plants. Drainage is laid at its bottom, pipes for irrigation and feeding are installed. The extracted soil is fertilized with manure, ash, mineral additives and piled next to the site of the future planting. It is carried out according to the scheme:
- A mound of prepared soil mixture is poured at the bottom of a trench or pit.
- A seedling is placed on top, the roots are straightened.
- The "heel" is placed at a depth of 0.5 m.
- They fill up the hole, compact the soil.
- After shrinkage, fill up the earth, leaving a hole 25 cm deep.
- Water and mulch the soil abundantly.
- If necessary, shade the seedling or build a shelter from frost.
The nuances of plant care
The condition, quality and volume of the future harvest depends on how the care for the Ayren grapes will be carried out.
Watering the bushes is carried out regularly - at least 4 times per season at a rate of 12-14 liters of water under one bush.
Watering is considered optimal through pipes buried near each bush. Water and fertilizer flow through them directly to the roots.
Drip irrigation has its own advantages and disadvantages. With the help of it, it is possible to maintain constant humidity and prevent cracking of the berries. But in the presence of constant humidity, the upper roots develop unnecessarily, which are prone to freezing in winter.
If the soils on which the Ayren grapes are planted are poor, at least five dressings per season should be carried out:
- in the spring, after the winter shelter has been removed from the bushes;
- with the beginning of flowering of the plant;
- at the stage of berry formation;
- during the period of technical ripeness of grapes;
- in the fall, before sheltering for the winter.
Fertilizer is applied in liquid form, powder, granules or applying foliar top dressing. They use organic and mineral fertilizers.
The grapes are pruned in order to form a bush, to remove diseased, immature, damaged shoots.
Sanitary pruning is done in the fall. In the spring, a bush is formed and branches that have not overwintered are removed. The procedure begins before bud break, when the daytime air temperature reaches + 10 ° C, and the threat of frost has passed. The weather should be sunny and calm. On Ayren grapes, vines that have borne fruit last season are removed, leaving about 6 strong shoots with a diameter of 8 mm.
Preparing for the winter period
Several types of shelters are used to protect grapes:
- hilling with earth up to 20 cm high for young seedlings;
- semi-shelter - protection of the root part with the help of agrofibre, straw;
- complete cover - removal of the vine from the trellis and protection with boxes, slate, film.
The type is chosen depending on the climatic conditions and the characteristics of winter in a particular region.
Diseases and pests
The most common fungal infections of grapes include:
- black spot.
Among viral diseases, the most common are:
- infectious chlorosis;
- foliage curl virus;
- short node virus.
Insect pests are capable of transferring diseases:
- spider mite;
Harvesting and storage
Ayren grapes are fruitful even in dry years. Up to 6 kg of berries are harvested from one vine. They are used for the production of dry white wine, brandy and mixed with highly colored varieties to give the wine a less intense color.