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Tomatoes or tomatoes are a very common and popular garden crop in the home garden. Competent and timely preparation of the greenhouse for tomatoes in the spring is a guarantee of obtaining high and high-quality crops. The modern catalog of this vegetable culture is replete with both well-known gardeners and time-tested varieties, as well as new hybrid forms. Particularly popular and trusted are the news from the domestic company Gardens of Russia.
In the spring, summer residents are faced not only with a difficult choice of planting material, but also with care for preparing the beds, as well as processing the soil before planting a vegetable crop.
Preparation of soil and beds
Preparation of high-quality and fertile soil for planting tomatoes in a greenhouse plays a very important role in obtaining high yields of a popular vegetable crop. Before planting seedlings or sowing seeds, it is necessary to properly prepare the soil, as well as acquire the fertilizers necessary to create a warm ridge.
The technology that allows you to properly cultivate the soil in the garden and in the greenhouse is simple:
- after a too frosty winter, before the early spring plantings, the process of self-heating of the greenhouse soil should be "started", with the aim of which the ridges are plentifully irrigated with hot water;
- A good result is obtained by warming the greenhouse ridges with biofuel or by adding organic components in the form of fresh manure, the volume of which should reach 25% of the total amount of soil;
- it is important to take into account the fact that you can’t use pork, as well as rabbit, goat and sheep manure to warm the greenhouse soil;
- Tomatoes are notable for their soil composition and soil moisture, they require slightly alkaline, slightly acid or neutral soil with good air permeability;
- the optimal composition of greenhouse soil for tomatoes is a mixture based on sod land and peat in a ratio of 1: 3, with the addition of 10 g of ammonium nitrate, 25-30 g of superphosphate and 10 g of potassium chloride.
How to prepare the soil in a greenhouse
A feature of the root system of tomatoes is a very high sensitivity to temperature conditions. Exactly because of this reason Experienced gardeners and specialists recommend using elevated ridges for planting. In order to achieve optimal temperature performance of protected soil, it is desirable to make multi-layer beds. The bottom layer should be wood sawdust or straw, on top of which you need to lay about 10 cm of horse or cow manure. The top, planting, layer should be made of a fertile soil mixture, which must be shed with potassium permanganate water and covered with garden foil for a couple of days.
The initial stage of processing greenhouse constructions includes the elimination of plant debris and the removal of all auxiliary elements represented by garters, pegs and nets. It is also necessary to carry out an audit of the design itself and replace the rotten, rusted and broken parts. Similarly, inspection, repair and processing of coatings based on glass or polycarbonate is carried out.
To prepare coverage for the upcoming season, you should:
- wash it with soapy water and rinse with clean water;
- drag, stick or replace all damaged areas;
- check the tightness of the joints, and if necessary, seal cracks and cracks;
- carry out the final treatment of the coating with running water.
One of the most popular methods of disinfection is the use of bleach, diluted at the rate of 0.4 kg per bucket of water. The solution should be infused for four hours, after which the processing of the covering material and the frame structure is performed. It is very convenient to disinfect the greenhouse or the greenhouse with sulfur. For this purpose, it is necessary to thoroughly seal all the cracks, as well as close the doors and windows. By means of a special sulfuric checker, fumigation of the inner space is carried out. For each cubic meter of the structure, about 60-80 g of the active substance should be used. It should be borne in mind that the use of sulfur fumigation causes rapid corrosion of the metal, so the method is not suitable for greenhouse structures with a metal frame.
At the final stage, greenhouse soil is processed by the biological, chemical or temperature method. Hot steam soil treatment is the easiest way to disinfect. Chemical disinfecting compounds may be used in the greenhouse only in autumn. In the spring, it is necessary to give preference to the thermal method or to replace the upper layer of greenhouse soil with fertile soil with the addition of basic trace elements and fertilizers.
The soil correctly and timely prepared in a greenhouse for growing tomatoes is able to warm up quickly enough, which allows planting events to be carried out already in early May. Soil for growing tomatoes must be fertile and warm. Among other things, the soil for growing tomatoes must have a good level of looseness and water permeability.
High-quality soil has the following composition: 50-60% peat, 20-25% sand and 15-20% compost. In the presence of light loam, it is necessary to increase the volume of compost and humus up to 50%. On thick loams it is recommended to increase the amount of sand. Sandy soils suggest the addition of clay-sod land.
Rows for planting tomato seedlings need to be prepared about a week before planting. A well-prepared ridge should have a height of 30-40 cm with a width of 60-80 cm. The standard method of planting tomato seedlings involves arranging the plants in rows. The distance between the beds should be approximately 55-60 cm. About a week before the seedlings are planted, it is advisable to treat the soil with the biological preparations Trichodermin, Phytosporin or Baikal-M.
Use of siderates
In order to quickly and efficiently improve the indicators of greenhouse soil fertility, experts and experienced vegetable growers recommend a preliminary sowing of green manure. Plants that contribute to the enrichment of soil in a protected soil with nitrogen and improve its structure can be classified as such garden crops. As a rule, for this purpose it is desirable to grow mustard, buckwheat, radish, wheat, peas and clover.
How to plant tomatoes in a greenhouse
Of course, it is best to sow green manure in greenhouse soil in the fall, immediately after harvesting. These plants grow before flowering, and then dig in with the soil. However, in the spring, you can sow the most early green manure crops, which in a short time will improve the quality characteristics of the soil and increase its fertility to optimal levels.